Issue 278: Can a type be a legal object or should F3 Manifestation Product type be a legal object?

Starting Date: 
2015-05-01
Working Group: 
3
Status: 
Done
Closing Date: 
2017-04-05
Background: 

Posted by Christian - Emil on 1/5/2015

Dear all,

As a part of the homework Patrick and I were asked to have a look into how to adjust FRBRoo to model other mass produced objects than 'publication products*.  This issue is related and may be a part of the answer to this question.

The current scope note of E55 Type is as follows

"This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts  in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes.

E55 Type is the CRM's interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader  term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties."

A CRM-type is a concept  (a  E28 Conceptual object in CRM) . A CRM-type represents or denotes a hypothetical set of other instances (members of) of CRM classes. The set is hypothetical in since we don't know all its members. Ontologically we assume that there exists a procedure that makes it possible to catalog or characterize an instance to belong to (P2 has type) to the set denoted by the concept. For example: In Natural History (systematical biology) every species definition (in CRM a species is a E55 Type) , has to prescribe explicitly or implicitly a procedure how to decide that that a specimen belongs to a given species. This procedure is an intellectual object and can in CRM be modelled as an instance of E73 Information Object and as such it is an E72 Legal Object. The procedure may be controlled by rights and legislation, the type not.

Last year Dan Matei raised the issue of how model coins and coin production.
Maria Theodoridou referred to how they in a project extended CRM with 

"E12 Production. PC1 produced things of type: E55 Type
E22 Man-Made Object. PC2 is example of: E55 Type
Both PC1 and PC2 are subproperties of P2 has type"

In general a (mass) event is  modelled in CRM by  an instance of P12 Production (subclass of P11 Modification). The property

E11 Modification P33 used specific technique E29 Design or Procedure

Is used to link the production event  ((P12 Production ) of physical things (E24 Physical Man-Made Thing) of a given type (E55 Type)to an information object (E29 Design or Procedure) describing how to make things of this type  (E55 Type).  The produced stuff (sorry thing) and the procedure how to produced it are legal objects (E72 Legal Object). The type of the produced thing is not.

The production of books is not different form the production of anything else. The printing (production ) of books (F5 Item) is modelled by an instance of

A) F32 Carrier Production Event
B) F32 Carrier Production Event - R26 produced things of type -  F3 Manifestation Product Type
C) F32 Carrier Production Event - R28 produced - F54 Utilized Information Carrier
D) F54 Utilized Information Carrier  - R7 is example of - F3 Manifestation Product Type
E) F32 Carrier Production Event - R27 used as source - P24 Publication Expression
F) E11 Modification P33 used specific technique E29 Design or Procedure

F32 Carrier Production Event is a subclass of E12 Production
F3 Manifestation Product Type is a subclass of E55 Type
F54 Utilized Information Carrier is a subclass of E71 Man Made Thing

R27 used as source is a subproperty of E7 Activity - P16 used specific object - E70 Thing
R26 produced things of type is a kind of sub class of P2 has Type (defined as E12 Production. P108 has produced: E24 Physical Man-MadeThing. P2 has type: E55 Type
which may be considered identical to PC2 above)

>From this we see that the modelling of production of books in FRBRoo is neatly modelled as a specialization of the more general production in CRM. However there is one important difference: The type of the items produced is a legal object. This may be a mix up of the concept 'design' as what characterize objects, the 'design' as the prescription of how to make things of this type and the process of developing this prescription. In the current FRBRoo we may have used to much energy on long and detailed the formulation of the scope note of  F3 Manifestation Product Type instead of giving the E29 Design or Procedure connected to the production of a items of a given type a more prominent place.

F3 Manifestation Product Type is simply a subtype of E55 Type and should not be a legal object.

Posted by Christian Emil on 4/5/2015

Dear all,
Apparently I have the bad habit of posting before I have proofread and checked the text. I apologize for that. Hopefully this version is clearer and has fewer errors.

C-E

As a part of the homework Patrick and I were asked to have a look into how to adjust FRBRoo to model other mass produced objects than 'publication products'.
The issue discussed in this text is related to that homework and may be a part of the answer. The conclusion in the present note is that it may not be correct that E3 Manifestation Product Type should be a subclass of E72 Legal Object.

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TYPES and E55 TYPE

The current scope note of E55 Type is as follows

"This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes.

E55 Type is the CRM's interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties."

A CRM-type (instance of E55 Type) is a concept (a E28 Conceptual object in CRM). A CRM-type represents or denotes a hypothetical set of other instances (members of) of CRM classes. The set is hypothetical in the sense that we don't know all its potential members.

Ontologically we assume that there exists a procedure that makes it possible to catalog, characterize or decide whether an instance of a CRM class belongs to (P2 has type) to the set denoted by the concept. For example:

In Natural History (systematical biology) every species definition (in CRM a species is an instance of E55 Type), has to prescribe explicitly or implicitly a procedure how to decide that a specimen belongs to a given species. This procedure is an intellectual object and can in CRM be modelled as an instance of E73 Information Object and consequently of E72 Legal Object. The procedure may be controlled by rights and legislation. The type, that is, the concept of the hypothetical set of specimens in the nature is not.

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MASS PRODUCTION, COINS AND THE CLASS F3 MANIFESTATION PRODUCT TYPE IN FRBRoo

Last year Dan Matei raised the issue of how model coins and coin production. He suggested that F3 Manifestation Product Type could be used. F3 is specialized to publication products. Although many non book objects are found in libraries, e.g. CDs, DVDs, stamp and perhaps bank notes, it may be case problems if we extend F3 to cover all sets of items which can be found in a library and documented in a library documentation system? This issue will be discussed in other homework.

Here I will examine the model of book production found in FRBRoo as a specialization of the model of mass production found in CIDOC-CRM

As a reply to Dan Mateis's question Maria Theodoridou referred to how they had extended CRM with two properties to be able to model coins and coin production:

E12 Production. PC1 produced things of type: E55 Type
E22 Man-Made Object. PC2 is example of: E55 Type
Both PC1 and PC2 are subproperties of P2 has type"

******
In un-extended CIDOC- CRM a (mass) production can be modelled as follows:

A) The event for the production: P12 Production.

B) Categorization of production:  P12 Production P2, has E55 Type

C) The outcome of the production: P12 Production, P108 has produced (was produced by), E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

D) The categorization of the products: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing, has type E55Type

E) Physical source material: E7 Activity, P16 used specific object, E70 Thing

F) Immaterial source material, e.g., for books: E7 Activity, P16 used specific object, E70 Thing
G) The design or procedure to be followed in the production: E11 Modification P33 used specific technique E29 Design or Procedure

In this model instances of E29 Design or Procedure describes how to make things. The produced things are instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. Both classes are subclasses of E72 Legal Object. The type (E55 Type) of the produced things is not.

***************
FRBRoo

The production of books is not different form the production of anything else. The printing (production) of books (F5 Item) is modelled as follows

A) The event for the production: F32 Carrier Production Event

B) Categorization of production: F32 Carrier Production Event, R26 produced things of type, F3 Manifestation Product Type

C) The outcome of the production: F32 Carrier Production Event, R28 produced, F54 Utilized Information Carrier

D) The categorization of the products: F54 Utilized Information Carrier, R7 is example of, F3 Manifestation Product Type

E) Physical source material: E7 Activity, P16 used specific object, E70 Thing

F) Immaterial source material: F32 Carrier Production Event, R27 used as source, P24 Publication Expression

G) E7 Activity P33 used specific technique E29 Design or Procedure

*****************
Relation to the general model of un-extended CIDOC-CRM

* F32 Carrier Production Event is a subclass of E12 Production

* F3 Manifestation Product Type is a subclass of E55 Type

* F54 Utilized Information Carrier is a subclass of E71 Man Made Thing

* F32 Carrier Production, R27 used as source, P24 Publication Expression is a subproperty of E7 Activity, P16 used specific object, E70 Thing

* F32 Carrier Production Event, R26 produced things of type, F3 Manifestation Product Type would be a subproperty of: E12 Production. PC1 produced things of type: E55 Type and finally a subproperty of P2 has type E55.

*  F54 Utilized Information Carrier, R7 is example of, F3 Manifestation Product Type would be a subproperty of E22 Man-Made Object. PC2 is example of: E55 Type and finally a subpropert of P2 has type E55.

 

**************
CONCLUSION

>From the outlines above we see that the model of production of books in FRBRoo is a specialization of the more general model of production in CRM. There some minor differences especially in the definition of the R26 being defined as a shortcut involving a property of a property. This is not important here. The most important difference is that F3 Manifestation Product Type is a subclass of E72 Legal Object in addition to being a subclass of E55 Type.

Is this a correct ontological analysis? IPR rights are clearly connected to the content modelled as an instance of P24 Publication Expression) the production plan resulting from the design process (layout, form, number of pages, use of material etc.) modelled as an instance E29 Design or Procedure). The concept that there is a certain set of books produced according to a common design and belonging to the same edition is not the subject of IPR.

F3 Manifestation Product Type is simply a subtype of E55 Type which can be used to catalog or characterize items. Similar to species not being legal objects (the structure of their DNA may be patentable), instances of F3 Manifestation Product Type should not be instances of E72 Legal Object.

If my argument is unsound, then we should introduce a general E?? Product Type which is a subclass of E 55 Type and of E72 Legal Object connected to E12 Production.

 

Old Proposal: 

In the 34nd joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 27th FRBR - CIDOC CRM, it is assigned to be elaborated by CEO and PLB

Heraklion, October 2015

 

Posted by Patric on 18/11/2016


I agree with everything Christian-Emil wrote, and I could add that what is submitted to rights in a publication is the Publication Expression, rather than the Manifestation Product Type.
 

Current Proposal: 

In the  37th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 30th   FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting the crm-sig decided to merge this issue with issue 268 since both concern mass production .  The outcome of the discussion is 

a) the definition of the proposed class Exx product Type needs more elaboration in order to capture the identity given by a company. Homework assigned to SS and to GB.

b) improvements made to the scope note of new proposed property Px1 produced thing of product type (is produced by

c) the proposed property Px2 is example of (has example) has not been accepted

d) the proposal to set R7 is example of   sub property of Px1 produced thing of product type has not been accepted

e) the  proposal to set R26 produced things of type   sub property of Px2 is example of has not been accepted because of (c) 

d) To use this case as base for further elaboration for  concepts about plans and specific tools, categorical properties for items produced and used by activities that produce things of this product type. Homework assigned to MD

Berlin, December 2016

posted by Martin on 24/3/2017

Dear All,

I send my homework without Steve's reworking of the scope note(s). 

Posted by George on 1/4/2017

Dear all,

I propose some changes to Martin’s proposed text for the scope note. 

Outcome: 

In the 38th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 31st FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, the sig reviewed and accepted  the proposal made by MD and GB about E99, P187, P188. The final texts are

E99 Product Type

Subclass of:  E55 Type
Superclass of: 
Scope note: This classes comprises types that stand as the models for instances of E22 Man-Made Object that are produced as the result of production activities using plans exact enough to result in one or more series of uniform, functionally and aesthetically identical and interchangeable items. The product type is the intended ideal form of the manufacture process. It is typical of instances of E22 that conform to an instance of E99 Product Type that its component parts are interchangeable with component parts of other instances of E22 made after the model of the same instance of E99. Frequently, the uniform production according to a set E99 Product Type is achieved by creating individual tools, such as moulds or print plates that are themselves carriers of the design of the product type. Modern tools may use the flexibility of electronically controlled devices to achieve such uniformity. The product type itself, i.e., the potentially unlimited series of aesthetically equivalent items, may be the target of artistic design, rather than the individual object. In extreme cases, only one instance of a product type may have been produced, such as in a "print on demand" process which was only triggered once. However, this should not be confused with industrial prototypes, such as car prototypes, which are produced prior to the production line being set up, or test the production line itself.

P187 has production plan (is production plan for)

Domain:  E99 Product Type
Range:  E29 Design or Procedure

Quantification:  one to many (1,n:1,1)

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E99 Product Type with an instance of E29 Design or Procedure that completely determines the production of instances of E18 Physical Thing. The resulting instances of E18 Physical Thing are considered exemplars of this instance of E99 Product Type when the process specified is correctly executed. Note that the respective instance of E29 Design or Procedure may not necessarily be fixed in a written/graphical form, and may require the use of tools or models unique to the product type. The same E99 Product Type may be associated with several variant plans.

Examples:

  • the production plans (E29) for Volkswagen Type 11 (Beetle) (E99)

P188 requires production tool (is production tool for)

Domain:  E99 Product Type
Range:  E19 Physical Object

Quantification:  one to many (1,n:1,1)

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E99 Product Type with an instance of E19 Physical Object that is needed for the production of an instance of E18 Physical Thing. When the process of production is correctly executed in accordance with the plan and using the specified instance of E19 Physical Object, the resulting instance of E18 Physical Thing is considered an exemplar of this instance of E99 Product Type. The instance of E19 Physical Object may bear distinct features that are transformed into characteristic features of the resulting instance of E18 Physical Thing. Examples include models and moulds.

Examples:

The issue is closed

Heraklion, April 2017

Reference to Issues: